Autophagy degrades dysfunctional cellular components in cells through the action of lysosomes. This is a strictly regulated approach that has an important housekeeping effect at a basic level, allowing cells to survive under a variety of stress conditions. The molecular mechanism of autophagy involves a series of processes, including induction and formation of the phagophore, autophagosome formation, fusion, degradation and recycling. LC3-II, Beclin-1 and P62 are all marker proteins of autophagy. mTOR kinase is a key molecule in the process of autophagy induction. Pathways that activate mTOR, such as Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, inhibit autophagy, and pathways that inhibit mTOR, such as AMPK and p53 signaling pathways, promote autophagy.
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